Chapter 1. 1. THE GOD. PARTICLE. If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? As the universe expanded and cooled and grew less dense, particles. The search for the fundamental particles and forces of nature o Revolutions of 20th century physics: relativity and quantum theory. ➢ Quantum fields and waves/ . From the Big Bang to present. • What is the Higgs boson? • What is mass and energy? • Why is it important to us? Is it the God particle?.
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PDF | The Higgs mechanism – as part of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics – is mostly considered to be a real physical process that brings. Preface. Introduction. The CERN Experiments and the “God Particle”. Can the “ God Particle” be a Base for an Argument for. Whether God Exists or Not?. The Higgs boson has been described as the “God” particle that will explain everything about the .. sinrizimacirc.gq%20chaps/Chap6. pdf.
According to this theory, the Higgs field fills the whole universe as air fills a room, and the masses of all particles result from how closely they stick to this field, if at all. Some glide through it effortlessly and have no mass.
Others get bogged down, and are therefore massive. The Higgs boson , the so-called "God Particle" of the subtitle in my edition of the book, would be a wiggle or wave in this field, like a sound wave in air, that betrays its existence.
Or not, if the theory is wrong. The Guardian's Ian Sample gives a gripping account of the hunt. I work on the Large Hadron Collider LHC , the machine at the heart of the search, so this much was familiar to me and it is explained well by Sample. Newer to me was the story of how the theory, first proposed in , moved from being a curiosity of dubious relevance to the centre stage of fundamental physics today.
The experiments that detected the Higgs boson revealed it had a mass of billion electron-volts, or more than times the mass of the proton. However, this discovery led to a mystery — at that mass, the Higgs boson should have destroyed the universe just after the Big Bang.
For this to happen, the energies must be extraordinarily high, "at least a million times higher than the LHC can reach," study co-author Arttu Rajantie, a theoretical physicist at Imperial College London, told Space. Right after the Big Bang, however, there was easily enough energy to make Higgs bosons attract each other.
This could have led the early universe to contract instead of expand, snuffing it out shortly after its birth. A number of scientists had suggested that new laws of physics or as-yet-undiscovered particles might have stabilized the universe from the peril posed by the Higgs boson.
Now Rajantie and his colleagues have found that gravity could solve this mystery instead. Gravity is a consequence of masses warping the fabric of space and time.
To imagine this, think of how bowling balls would deform rubber mats they sit on. In its ground state , this causes the field to have a nonzero value everywhere including otherwise empty space , and as a result, below a very high energy it breaks the weak isospin symmetry of the electroweak interaction.
Technically the non-zero expectation value converts the Lagrangian 's Yukawa coupling terms into mass terms. When this happens, three components of the Higgs field are "absorbed" by the SU 2 and U 1 gauge bosons the " Higgs mechanism " to become the longitudinal components of the now-massive W and Z bosons of the weak force.
The remaining electrically neutral component either manifests as a Higgs particle, or may couple separately to other particles known as fermions via Yukawa couplings , causing these to acquire mass as well. The problem was that the symmetry requirements in gauge theory predicted that both electromagnetism's gauge boson the photon and the weak force's gauge bosons W and Z should have zero mass. Although the photon is indeed massless, experiments show that the weak force's bosons have mass.
By the late s, physicists had not resolved these issues, which were significant obstacles to developing a full-fledged theory for particle physics.
Symmetry breaking[ edit ] By the early s, physicists had realised that a given symmetry law might not always be followed under certain conditions, at least in some areas of physics. Symmetry breaking can lead to surprising and unexpected results. If electroweak symmetry was somehow being broken, it might explain why electromagnetism's boson is massless, yet the weak force bosons have mass, and solve the problems.
Shortly afterwards, in , this was shown to be theoretically possible, at least for some limited non-relativistic cases. Main article: Higgs mechanism Following the and papers, three groups of researchers independently published the PRL symmetry breaking papers with similar conclusions and for all cases, not just some limited cases. They showed that the conditions for electroweak symmetry would be "broken" if an unusual type of field existed throughout the universe, and indeed, some fundamental particles would acquire mass.